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- Two incisions are made on the chest.
- The skin is lifted to reveal the underlying tissue.
- The breast tissue is carefully separated from the underlying muscles.
- The breast is completely removed.
- The pectoralis major muscle is removed.
- The pectoralis minor muscle is also extracted.
- Lymph nodes, lymph vessels, blood vessels, and nerves within the fatty tissues are addressed.
- The lymph nodes and surrounding fat are removed, ensuring the thoracic nerve is undamaged.
- The surgical team checks for any remaining signs of disease.
- Muscles and other tissues are repositioned.
- Drainage tubes are inserted temporarily.
- The incision is closed, and a sterile bandage is applied.

A radical mastectomy, often called a comprehensive breast cancer surgery, is a pivotal treatment for breast cancer. This skin-sparing mastectomy procedure involves not just the removal of the breast but also the lymph nodes and, in many cases, parts or the entirety of the chest muscle. The lymphatic system, a vital component of our health, comprises lymph nodes that act as junctions connecting the vessels. These vessels circulate lymph, akin to the circulatory system's role in blood transportation. The need for a modified radical mastectomy arises when evidence suggests the cancer might have invaded the lymph nodes beneath the arm and the chest muscle. This surgery can decrease muscle strength in the arm on the affected side and permanently modify the chest's outward appearance. The procedure commences with two incisions, followed by breast tissue removal, and then the extraction of the pectoralis major and minor muscles. The surgical team then addresses the fatty tissues home to the lymph nodes, lymph vessels, blood vessels, and nerves. After ensuring all traces of the disease are eradicated, the incision is sealed, and a sterile bandage is applied, marking the end of this targeted therapy.
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